Letra
   

Saiba como convencer os executivos sobre o valor do Gerenciamento de Projetos - Parte II

Não há nenhuma dúvida que um grupo de processos padronizado em gerenciamento de projetos fornece valor a uma empresa. O argumento exato a usar para convencer os executivos sobre o valor das práticas padronizadas do gerenciamento de projetos é diferente de empresa para empresa. Isso porque cada empresa tem uma cultura única e enfrenta problemas únicos. Entretanto, alguns benefícios comuns devem ser conseguidos em todas as organizações. Por exemplo:

Melhor estimação, planejamento e definição dos projetos

Quantas vezes você já ouviu falar ou esteve envolvido em um projeto que falhou terrivelmente? Ou que talvez não tenha sido tão bem-sucedido quanto deveria? Você alguma vez, já investiu seu tempo para descobrir o que fez com que o projeto falhasse?

O gerenciamento de projetos foca primeiramente em planejar o trabalho. Esta é uma disciplina vital, e permite que a equipe do projeto e o cliente tenham percepções comuns em termos de o que o projeto irá entregar, quando estará concluído, quanto irá custar, quem fará o trabalho e como o trabalho será feito.

Isto inclui:

- Compreender e obter um acordo em relação aos objetivos, entregas, escopo, riscos, custos, abordagem do projeto, etc.

- Determinar se o caso do negócio (Business Case) original ainda continua sendo válido. Por exemplo, a execução de um projeto que tem uma estimativa de 10.000 horas de esforço, baseado no caso do negócio (Business Case), poderá fazer sentido para o cliente executá-lo. Entretanto, se o processo de planejamento do projeto determinar que o esforço requerido realmente será de 20.000 horas, o projeto poderá não fazer mais sentido para o cliente.

- Certificar-se de que os recursos que você necessita estarão disponíveis quando forem necessários.

- Fornecer uma linha de base (baseline) em um nível elevado em que o progresso do projeto possa ser comparado e mensurado.

- Trabalhar com o cliente antecipadamente nos processos que serão utilizados para gerenciar o projeto.

Declaração de Valor: Utilizando um processo padronizado de definição e de planejamento, você estabelece um grupo comum de expectativas e irá assegurar que somente o trabalho requerido será feito. Também, este processo poderá resultar no cancelamento dos projetos que não tem um caso de negócio (Business Case) viável.

Economia de custo e de tempo através da reutilização de processos e de modelos de formulários (Templates) padronizados

As pessoas compreendem intuitivamente que é mais rápido e mais barato reutilizar algo que já existe de que construir algo similar a partir do nada. Se a sua organização criar um grupo de processos de gerenciamento de projetos e os modelos (Templates) para serem utilizados consistentemente em todos os projetos, cada vez que estes processos e modelos (templates) forem utilizados, isso representará uma economia do tempo que seria investido de outra maneira para criar esses processos a partir do nada.

Declaração de Valor: Utilizar processos e modelos padronizados de gerenciamento de projetos, resultará na economia do custo e do tempo associado que seria investido de outra maneira para criar esses processos a partir do nada em cada projeto.

Os projetos são executados com maior eficiência através de processos pró-ativos de gerenciamento de projetos

As pessoas que reclamam que o gerenciamento de projetos é apenas “Custos Indiretos” (Overhead), esquecem-se do ponto. O seu projeto encontrará vários problemas, a pergunta é, você planejou resolver pró-ativamente estes problemas ou irá esperar que eles apareçam para resolvê-los? Também, o seu projeto enfrentará riscos potenciais. Você irá tentar resolvê-los antes que eles aconteçam, ou esperar eles ocorrerem? Você está comunicando-se pró-ativamente ou gerencia os enganos causados pela falta de informação do projeto?

Nem todas as características do projeto mudarão se você utilizar ou não um processo formal de gerenciamento de projetos. O que muda é a maneira como os eventos são gerenciados enquanto o projeto está em andamento. Os eventos são gerenciados de maneira casual e reativa, ou pró-ativamente através de um processo padronizado e aprovado?

Declaração de Valor: Ter processos pró-ativos e consistentes estabelecidos lhe ajudará a executar os projetos com maior rapidez, menor custo e em um nível mais alto da qualidade.

Melhor gerenciamento das expectativas e da tomada de decisões através da comunicação mais efetiva

Comunicar-se corretamente em um projeto é um fator crítico de sucesso para gerenciar as expectativas do cliente e das partes interessadas. Se estas pessoas não forem mantidas bem informadas sobre o progresso do projeto, haverá uma possibilidade muito grande de ocorrer problemas e dificuldades devido aos níveis diferentes de expectativas. De fato, em muitos casos onde os conflitos aparecem, não é pelo problema em si, mas porque o cliente ou o gerente do projeto foi surpreendido.

Declaração de Valor: A comunicação pró-ativa permite que você gerencie melhor as expectativas e evite enganos e conflitos. Também fornece melhores informações para a tomada de decisões.

A criação de um produto de alta qualidade na primeira tentativa

O gerenciamento da qualidade refere-se ao estabelecimento de processos para assegurar que o seu trabalho e produtos produzidos sejam de alta qualidade na primeira tentativa. Praticando alguns processos simples de gerenciamento da qualidade, você poderá entregar os seus trabalhos em um nível mais elevado da qualidade na primeira tentativa e evitar as despesas e o tempo requerido para reparar o trabalho que já foi concluído. Muitas equipes de projetos pensam que estão em uma boa posição até se aproximarem do final do projeto. Quando o final do projeto se aproxima, começam a descobrir alguns problemas em relação as suas entregas. Então, descobrem que há muito retrabalho para fazer, e que o prazo final do projeto será estourado.

Declaração de Valor: O gerenciamento da qualidade ajuda você a criar as entregas corretamente na primeira tentativa e reduz os custos através do descobrimento dos problemas o mais cedo possível no projeto.

Há outros aspectos no gerenciamento de projetos que fornecem valor, incluindo o gerenciamento mais eficaz do escopo, definir e coletar as métricas, o gerenciamento pró-ativo do cronograma, etc. Entretanto, os itens acima fornecem a você uma idéia de como o argumento do valor poderá ser moldado.

Sumário

Não é possível fornecer um grupo exato de argumentos que convencerão os executivos em todas as empresas. Os argumentos que você usa para uma empresa, poderão não ter o mesmo impacto em outra empresa. Entretanto, os valores básicos indicados acima provavelmente são realísticos em todas as empresas.

O ponto para começar o processo de “venda” do gerenciamento de projetos a seus executivos é descobrir quais os tipos de problemas que a sua organização está enfrentando hoje. Então, reveja os vários componentes de gerenciamento de projetos e investigue como eles teriam um impacto positivo em resolver estes problemas ou minimizá-los.

Não utilize somente os números quantitativos para vender o gerenciamento de projetos. A implantação do gerenciamento de projetos é uma iniciativa de mudança da cultura, e para a maioria dos casos todas as iniciativas deste tipo estão tendo que confiar em alguns números qualitativos. Certifique-se de que você cobre os benefícios diretos dos projetos nos termos de custos, prazos finais e da qualidade, e também, certifique-se de que você conectou estes benefícios com a habilidade da sua organização para alcançar os seus objetivos do negócio e construir a potencialidade para encontrar-se melhor com os desafios do negócio e também dirigir o negócio a uma visão futura.

A parte I deste artigo foi publicado em nosso Blog. http://blog.tenstep.com.br

Esta coluna discute algumas dicas sobre o gerenciamento de projetos. Há muito mais técnicas disponíveis na metodologia TenStep PGP®.

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